Ai – harmony, love
Aiki – harmonious energy
Aikido – a martial art founded by Morihei Ueshiba
Aikikai – aikido school
Ai hanmi – the position taken by two students facing each other, in which each has the same foot forward, i.e. each has the right foot forward, or each has the left foot forward
Atemi – a strike
Biran – the cosmic storm that presages great change in the world
Birankai - the organization founded by T.K. Chiba Shihan, to which Grass Valley Aikikai belongs. Birankai consists of member dojos throughout the world whose chief instructors follow Chiba Sensei. Birankai is divided into three branches: Birankai North America, Birankai United Kingdom, Birankai Contental Europe.
Bokken – wooden sword
Budo – martial way
Chudan – middle level, level of the chest and abdomen
Dan – black belt rank
Do – way, path, Tao
Dojo – place where a martial art is practiced (“way place”)
Domo Arigato Gozaimashita – thank you very much
Doshu – the title of the person who is the head of the International Aikido Federation, currently Moriteru Ueshiba, the grandson of the founder of Aikido.
Fukushidoin – the first (or lowest) of the three teaching ranks used in the United States Aikido Federation, Western Region
Gedan – lower level, knee level
Gi – uniform
Go - five
Godan – fifth degree black belt
Gokyo – fifth pinning technique
Gokyu – the first rank obtained by a new student (see “kyu”)
Gyaku Hanmi – the position taken by two partners facing each other in which each has the opposite foot forward, a mirror image configuration
Hachi - eight
Hakama – a traditional Japanese men’s garment like a long divided skirt that is worn by black belt or instructor training students
Hanmi – triangular stance used in aikido
Hanmi handachi – the configuration in which the attacker is standing and the receiver is kneeling
Hombu Dojo – “headquarters dojo”, the Aikido World Headquarters, located in Tokyo.
Hombu dojo style – the style of aikido practiced at Hombu Dojo. Grass Valley Aikikai practices Hombu dojo style.
Ichi – one
Ikkyo – first pinning technique
Ikkyu – the rank just before black belt
Irimi - entering
Iriminage – entering throw
Jo – staff. Sometimes spelled jyo.
Jodan – upper level, face level
Ju - ten
Jujinage – a throw in which two partner’s arms make a cross. “Juji” means “cross”, as in the Roman numeral for ten (X).
Kaiten – sliding the foot forward, then pivoting 180 degrees
Kaitennage – rotary throw
Kamiza – a small shrine
Katadori – shoulder grab
Katatedori – hand grab
Kenshusei – student in an instructor training program
Ki – energy, life force
Ki no nagare – flowing movement
Kohai – junior student
Kokyu – breath
Kokyudosa – a traditional exercise often performed at the end of class (Suwariwaza ryotedori kokyuho)
Kokyuho – breath exercise
Kokyunage – breath throw
Kotegaeshi – wrist turning throw
Koshinage – hip throw
Ku - nine
Kyu – white belt rank. Kyu ranks go in inverse order from fifth to first for adults and tenth to first for children. Black belt ranks start at first degree and go up.
Kyudansha – a person who wears a white belt, or a group of people with white belt rank
Mai ai – proper distance with respect to one’s partner
Masakatsu agatsu – true victory is self-victory
Morotedori – two hands grabbing one hand
Nage – the person who is attacked. As a word ending it means throw, e.g. “kokyunage” translates as “breath throw”.
Ni - two
Nidan – second degree black belt
Nikyo – second pinning technique
Nikyu – the second rank before black belt
Omote – front, or positive. Most aikido techniques have two versions, omote and ura. The omote version brings the action to front of the partner’s body. The ura version takes the action behind the partner.
Onegai shimasu – Let’s begin. This is a traditional phrase said to one’s partner when initiating practice. It can be translated several ways, and is sometimes used to answer the phone or when entering a store.
O-Sensei – the founder of Aikido, Morihei Ueshiba
Randori – a multiple attack exercise
Rokyo – sixth pinning technique
Rokudan – sixth degree black belt
Ryokatadori – double shoulder grab
Ryotedori – two hands grabbing two hands
San - three
Sandan – third degree black belt
Sankyo – third pinning technique
Sankyu – third kyu rank
Seiza – formal sitting position, sitting on one’s knees
Sempai – senior student
Sensei - teacher
Shi – four. Also refers to death, so in many cases the word “yon” is substituted.
Shichi - seven
Shidoin – the second (or middle) of the three teaching ranks used in the United States Aikido Federation, Western Region
Shihan – master. The third (or highest) of the three teaching ranks used in the United States Aikido Federation, Western Region.
Shihonage – four direction throw
Shikko – knee walking
Shodan – first degree black belt
Shomen – forehead, top of the head. Altar at the front of a dojo.
Shomenuchi – overhead strike to the head
Soto - outside
Suwariwaza – techniques executed with both partners on their knees
Sumiotoshi – corner drop, a throw which pulls the attacker diagonally backward
Tachiwaza – standing techniques
Taijutsu – “body arts”, empty handed techniques
Tai no henko – a basic blending exercise involving turning 180 degrees, “body changing”
Tanto - knife
Tenchinage – heaven and earth throw
Tenkan – turning the body 180 degrees and stepping back
Tenshin – a movement where the nage retreats 45 degrees away from the attack
Tsuki – a punch or thrust
Uchi – inside, home. As a word ending it means strike, e.g. “shomenuchi” translates as “strike to the head”.
Uchideshi – “home student”, a student who lives in the dojo
Udegarami – tangled arm throw
Ueshiba Kisshomaru – the second Doshu, the son of the founder of Aikido, now deceased
Ueshiba Morihei – the founder of Aikido
Ueshiba Moriteru – the grandson of the founder of Aikido, the third Doshu
Uke – the person who initiates the attack and receives the technique
Ukemi – the art of falling, receiving the technique
Ura – behind, or negative. Most aikido techniques have two versions, omote and ura. The omote version brings the action to front of the partner’s body. The ura version takes the action behind the partner.
Ushiro – back, behind
Ushiro eridori – grabbing the collar from behind
Ushiro kubishimi – grabbing one hand from behind, and choking with the other hand
Ushiro ryokatadori – grabbing both shoulders from behind
Ushiro ryotedori – grabbing both hands from behind
Yon - four
Yondan – fourth degree black belt
Yonkyo – fourth pinning technique
Yonkyu - second rank achieved by a beginner (forth below black belt)
Yokomen – side of the head
Yokomenuchi – strike to the side of the head
Yudansha – person with black belt rank, or a group of people with black belt rank
Zanshin – maintaining a martial awareness and connection after throwing
Zazen – sitting meditation
Zen – a type of Buddhism